DrMuhammad AnjumAli 

Director General Agriculture

(Extension & Adaptive Research)

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Farmer’s Perception of Agricultural Extension Regarding Diffusion of Agricultural Technology.
Siddiqui, A and Mirani, Z., (2012).

This paper examines the technology transfer process used by agriculture extension staff in Sindh where it is revealed that majority of the farmers received less than one visit by the field assistant.

Communication gap and training needs of Pakistan’s agricultural extension agents inhorticulture.
Khan, M.Z., Nawab, K., Javidullah, Khatam, A., Qasim, M., Ayub, G and Nawaz, N., (2012).
This study was based on self assessment of the competency of AEOs in horticulture. This study revealed that there are significant differences in the technical competencies of the agricultural officials based on by their attendance in training programs provided as well as specialization.

Strengths and Weaknesses of Various Information Delivery Methods Used by Private Agricultural Extension System in the Punjab, Pakistan.
Shoukat Ali, Ahmad, M and Ali, T., (2011).
This paper concludes that effective communication of a message is more important than delivery of a message and therefore the private extension system should focus on effective communication rather than communication.

An Analysis of Extension Workers Perceptions Concerning Their Professional Competencies: The Case of Rural Punjab, Pakistan.
Masud, K., Hashmi, N and Tanvir Ali, T.,(2011).
This paper presents an analysis of perceptions of extension workers concerning their professional competencies.

Self-Perceived Needs of Rural Women for Agricultural Extension Services.
Luqman, M., Ashraf, E., Hassan S. W and Ullah, S., (2011).
The paper present findings from a research study conducted to determine the needs of rural women for agriculture extension services. The paper concludes that though women are involved in a variety of operations regarding crop and livestock production, they lack access to agricultural extension services. 

National Agricultural Extension Systems in SAARC Countries: An Analysis of the Systems Diversity - A Case of Pakistan.
Malik, W., (2011).
The country paper reviews the performance of the national agricultural extension system in Pakistan and discuses the diversity of the different systems involved. & (ppts)

Role of Private Extension System in Agricultural Development through Advisory Services in the Punjab, Pakistan.
Ali, S., Ahmad, M., Ali, T., Hassan, S. W and Luqman, M. (2011).
This paper reviews the types of extension services rendered by private extension system to the farmers in Pakistan and it reports that 90% of the farmers are getting extension services from the private sector.

The role of the private sector in agricultural extension in Pakistan.
Riaz, M., (2010).
This short review of the situation suggests that most advisory services in Pakistan today are being provided by the private sector and thus has effectively replaced the public extension service as farmers find it more relevant, up-to-date, accurate and timely for their situations compared to those from the public sector.

An analysis of effectiveness of extensionmethods used in farmers field school approachfor agricultural extension work in Punjab, Pakistan.
Bajwa, M.S., Ahmad, M and Ali, T., (2010).
This paper analyses the effectiveness of different extension methods in FFS in Pakistan and it concludes that group discussion and lecture were used to an average extent, whereas boards / slogans were used by FFS staff to a below average extent.

Agricultural Extension Programs in Punjab, Pakistan.
Abbas, M., Lodhi, T.E., Auj la, and Saadullah, S., (2009).
This paper reviews the evolution of agricultural extension programs in Punjab

Role of Agricultural Extension in Sustainable Rural Development in Pakistan.
Baig, M.B., Al-Subaiee, F. S and Gary S. S., (2009).
This paper discusses the different approaches in extension adopted in Pakistan such as decentralization and devolution; participatory approaches and the use of new ICTs.

Investigation into Effectiveness of Decentralized Agricultural Extension in Peshawar District.
Ahmad, S., Nawab, K., Saqib, R., Saddozai, K and Karral, A.Y., (2008).
This paper analyses the effectiveness of decentralized agricultural extension system in Pakistan.

Role of Mass Media in the Dissemination of Agricultural Technologies among Farmers.
Irfan, M., Muhammad, S., Khan, G.A and Muhammad, A., (2006).
This paper presents the preference of farmers for different media sources in accessing information on agricultural technologies.

Identification and Prioritization of the Training Needs of Agricultural Extension Administrators in Efficient Decision Making Processes in the Punjab, Pakistan.
Hussain, N., Khan, M.A.J and Asif, M., (2010).
This paper analyses the competency levels of Extension Administrators to perform the work to identify the training needs of agricultural administrators in efficient decision making processes.

An Analysis of Farmer Field School (FFS) as a Potential Source of Advanced Technology Dissemination Among the Farmers of District Faisalabad, Pakistan
Muhammad Ali, Muhammad Sajjad Haider (2012)
This paper is about the role of FFS as a potential source of latest agricultural technology transfer for farming community in Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Factors affecting the effectiveness of print media in the dissemination of Agricultural information
Fariha Rehman, Sher Muhammad, Ijaz Ashraf and Sarfraz Hassan (2011)
The paper is about the factors affecting effectiveness of the print media in the Punjab

Present status and future preferences of electronic media as Agricultural Information sources by the farmers
Ghazanfar Ali Khan, Sher Muhammad, Khalid Mahmood Chaudhry, and Muhammad Aslam Khan (2010)
This paper details how extension can empower the farming community with latest knowledge through electronic media for the development of agricultural sector.

Impact of poultry extension services for the rural women
Muhammad ZakariaYousuf Hassan, Tahir Munir Butt, Muhammad Farooq Khalid, Khalid Mahmud, Mahr-un-Nisa, Abd Ur Rehman, Naveed Iftikhar, Nasir Mukhtar and Munawar Hussain (2012)
This paper analyses the impact of poultry extension services on the rural women.

Ruralwomen’s involvement in decision-making regarding livestock management
Arshad, S., S. Muhammad, Mahmood A. Randhawa I. Ashraf and Khalid Mehmood ch (2010)
This paper analyses the contribution of rural women in decision-making in livestock management.

Strengths and weaknesses fo extension system as perceived extension filed staff
Ijaz Ashraf, Sher Muhammad, Khalid Mahmmod, Muhammad Idrees and Naeem Shah (2009)
This paper brings out the strengths and weaknesses of the contemporary extension system.

Identification and prioritization of production, protection and marketing problems faced by the rice growers
Aamer Iqbal, Ijaz Ashraf, Sher Muhammad and Khalid Mahmood Chaudhry (2009)
This paper identifies and prioritise the production, protection, and marketing problems faced by the rice growers.

Rural women''s access to various sources of information in tehsil Faisalabad
Chaudhry, K.M, Muhammad, saghir, Ashraf, I (2008)
This paper estimate the information gap among rural women;PK2009000197

Constrains in availability of inputs and information to citrus (Kinnow) growers of tehsil Toba Tek Singh
Ghafoor, U. Muhammad, S. Choudhry, K.M. (2008)This paper examines the existing yield gap in citrus;PK2009001382

Harvesting and marketing problems faced by citrus (Kinnow) growers of tehsil Toba Tek Singh
Ghafoor, U, Muhammad, S. Chaudhary, K.M, Randhawa, M.A.Ashraf, I (2010)
The study is about finding the problems faced by the citrus (Kinnow) growers in the harvesting and marketing problems.

Agricultural Extension Programs in Punjab, Pakistan
The present study was carried out to review the studies on agricultural extension programs in Punjab. The reviews reveal that the government launched various agricultural extension programs from time to time. Village-AID Program, Basic Democracy System, Rural Works Program, Integrated Rural Development Program, Peoples Works Program, Barani Area Development Program, Traditional Agriculture Extension System, Training and Visit (T&V) Extension System were main agricultural extension programs.

A model for ICT based services for agriculture extension in Pakistan

This document is an output from a project funded by the UK Department for International Development (DFID) for the benefit of developing countries. However, the views expressed and information contained in it are not necessarily those of or endorsed by DFID, which can accept no responsibility for such views or information or for any reliance placed on them. 

The role of the private sector in agricultural extension in Pakistan

This short review of the situation suggests that most advisory services in Pakistan today are being provided by the private sector and thus has effectively replaced the public extension service. Farmers seem to trust the information from the private sector as they find it more relevant, up-to-date, accurate and timely for their situations compared to those from the public sector.

 Enhancement of Extension Systems in Agriculture

The Seminar on Enhancement of Extension Systems in Agriculture was held in Faisalabad from 15 to 20 December 2003. The Seminar was organized by the Asian Productivity Organization and hosted by the Government of Pakistan. The National Productivity Organization-Pakistan and University of Agriculture, Faisalabad implemented the program. Fourteen participants from 11 member countries and 5 resource persons from Australia, FAO-Rome, India and Pakistan attended the seminar.

 Agricultural extension agents and challenges for sustainable development ( a case study of Peshawar valley )

The present study was launched in two districts of NWFP namely Peshawar and Nowshera during 2007-08. Forty agricultural extension agents were interviewed through face to face interview schedule. The main objectives of the study were to identify the challenges, constraints, problems and shortcoming faced by extension agents engaged in disseminating the latest agriculture technology and to make policy recommendations.The empirical results indicate that more than half of the field assistants were educated up to Matric plus two years agricultural training course.

International Journal of Agricultural Extension

The economy of Pakistan (GOP, 2012) is largely dependent on agriculture, which directly supports three quarters of the population and satisfies the hunger of 163.76 million people. Gender relates to socially assigned roles and behaviors attributable to men and women.

Agricultural Extension in Central Asia: Existing Strategies and Future Needs

This paper provides information on the current status of the agricultural extension systems in Central Asia (CA), with special reference to Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. The report reviews the existing extension strategies, donor- and state-driven initiatives to revitalize the agricultural extension systems, informal linkages that nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) play in helping a limited number of farmers, and recommendations on ways to further improve the agricultural extension services in CA.

Reaching Rural Women Case Study: Gender Focused Extension Systems

Agriculture in developing countries provides some of the world’s most marginalised and vulnerable communities not only with their main source of food, but a means to create livelihoods and generate income. These communities, which are generally made up of small-scale subsistence farmers, now face added pressures brought about by climate change and a shifting global economy. The need for agricultural growth is more pressing than ever. Recent data from the UN Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO, 2010-11) shows that 43% of the agricultural workforce in developing countries is made up of women.

Farmers Willingness To Pay (WTP) For Advisory Services By Private Sector Extension: The Case of Punjab

The data were summarized using frequency distribution, mean and standard deviation. Results of the analysis showed that farmers were willing to pay for the services of cotton and rice crops in cotton-zone and rice-zone respectively. Similarly in both zones, farmers were also willing to pay for wheat crop. But in central-mixed-zone, farmers were not willing to pay for the services. This study concludes that limited opportunities exist for fee-based private extension system in the country.

ICTS as Enablers of Agricultural Innovation Systems

Research, extension, and advisory services are some of the most knowledge-intensive elements of agricultural innovation systems. They are also among the heaviest users of information communication technologies (ICTs). This module introduces ICT developments in the wider innovation and knowledge systems as well as explores drivers of ICT use in research and extension.

Climate Change and Coastal Districts of Balochistan-Situation Analysis, Implications and Recommendations

Finally, based on the complex findings and projections, the study provides a range of recommendations to address climate change issues and to manage the related impacts in the coastal districts of Balochistan Province.

Women entrepreneurs in Pakistan How to improve their bargaining power by Nabeel A. Goheer

The International Labour Organization’s Area Office in Islamabad and the South Asia Advisory Team (ILO-SAAT) based in New Delhi, in association with its InFocus Programme on Boosting Employment through Small Enterprise Development (IFP/SEED), are pleased to publish this report on Women Entrepreneurs in Pakistan: How to improve their bargaining power. This report presents information on an area that has hitherto not received much attention in Pakistan.

Agriculture Knowledge Management projects in Pakistan 

CABI improves people’s lives worldwide by providing information and applying scientific expertise to solve problems in agriculture and the environment.

Agriculture Extension Curricula in Agricultural Universities of Pakistan: Perspectives of Agriculture Extension Personnel

The study also stated that the curriculum in extension education did not help extension personnel to operate modern machines, equipment and implements, and to describe the maintenance procedure of farm machinery. This can be avoided by including such materials in the extension curriculum that could help extension personnel to operate modern machines, equipment and to describe the maintenance procedure of farm machinery.

Overview of Agricultural Research and Extension in Pakistan 

Pakistan’s Agriculture is complex–geography, agro ecological zones,cropping patterns,production systems , mixed farming The agricultural research system devised earlier has served reasonably well not ably through provision of high yielding crop varieties.

Digital Opportunities in Pakistan: A paper evaluating Pakistani eReadiness Initiatives

Pakistan has charted out a robust roadmap for ICT policy in the country. The digital opportunity initiatives include attracting foreign investment in IT sector; pragmatic and market-driven regulatory framework, establishing venture capital funds, creation of Virtual Universities an d IT Centers, bringing up new technology-based infrastructure, promotion of IT education through International Certification Programs, Telemedicine, Voice of IP Initiative — and a number of other important fundaments creating a greenhouse for nurturing ICT-driven development and economic initiatives which promise to capitulate the digital divide both for the Pakistan society at large and accelerating the pace of business and industry in particular.

Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Climate Variability: A Case of Cotton Growers in the Punjab, Pakistan 

In addition, adaptations of mitigation strategies such as conservation agriculture, cover cropping, migration to less weather prone area and usage of weather resistant varieties were almost negligible. Conservation agriculture could be the most viable strategy s farmers have to utilize their existing resources in judicious ways. It is suggested on the basis of findings that role of extension field staff should be diversified. Farmers need capacity building regarding conservation agriculture. Moreover, it is dire need to popularize climate variability/change and its adaptation through effective media campaign.

Rural Women’s Participation in Crop and Livestock Production Activities in Faisalabad–Pakistan

Rural women in Pakistan, under small holding system of farming, play a pivotal role in farming. They are actively participating in all range of activities related to crop production and livestock management. Rural women remain busy from dawn to dusk in various agricultural activities including pre-harvest, post-harvest and livestock management activities.

CLEW: Community Livestock Extension Workers

Livestock is the main source of high protein foods as well as a great mean of income generation for most rural population in Pakistan. IRM community Livestock Extension Workers (CLEWs) Training programme is developed to get most benefit out of Livestock by maximizing production and minimizing losses through disease prevention & mortality control.

General Problems regarding Extension Services with Livestock and Dairy Farmers of Peshawar District Pakistan 

The study examines the general problems regarding extension services of Livestock and Dairy Development Department (NWFP) in District Peshawar during 2006. The data for the study were collected from 60 respondents purposely selected from 4 out of 92 Union Councils of Peshawar District through a pre-tested questionnaire. The respondents included all age groups with different education status. 

General Problems regarding Extension Services with Livestock and Dairy Farmers of Peshawar District Pakistan 

the respondents. Horses and donkeys were kept for carriage purposes. It was encouraging that 58.33% respondents were visited by extension workers and 53.33% respondents were satisfied from existing extension services and other institutional facilities. However, all the respondents complained difficulties related to livestock extension services. The study concludes that role of extension services of Livestock and Dairy Development Department needs improvement and could be changed, modified and boosted up by effective policy making.

The Role of Extension in changing the Dairy Industry in Pakistan: A Review

Pakistan is primarily an agricultural based country, and livestock plays a pivotal role in its economy by providing essential items of the human diet in the form of milk, meat and eggs. The population of the country is nearly180 million, and 36 million in the rural areas depend directly on the livestock and dairy sectors. Pakistan has recently been ranked as the world’s third largest milk producer, with the recent growth in per capita milk production being driven by an increase in the number of dairy animals rather than by milk yield improvement.

CELDAC-Engro project 

First, we would like to thank the Lady Livestock Workers (LLWs) of the CELDAC-Engro project, their willingness, interest and enthusiasm which contributed tremendously to the success of the project. We also appreciate the role of the communities, whose cooperation made this happen.

Training Need Assessment of Rural Women in Livestock Management -Case of Southern Punjab, Pakistan 

The study recommends that short term training programmes in livestock care and management must be introduced for rural women under the umbrella of Livestock Extension Department so that they can contribute in a better way in national economy.

Enhancing Livestock Productivity in the Desert Ecologies of Pakistan: Setting the Development Priorities

Livestock farming is practiced in all over Pakistan by millions of farming and landless households. The livestock sub-sector constitutes a more important source of food and means of sustenance in rainfed, mountainous and desert ecologies of Pakistan. Livestock farming is main agricultural activity in deserts because in these areas crop farming opportunities are relatively few due to very low rainfall, sandy soils and meagreavailability of good quality ground water. This sector shares by 53.2 percent in the total agricultural value added and about 11.4 percent in national GDP Pakistan (2010).

Status and Constraints of Livestock Production in Sindh Province of Pakistan

Livestock sector plays an important role in the economy of Sindh as well as Pakistan by contributing in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), foreign exchange earnings through exports, reducing livestock related imports, meeting the food requirements of growing population, and providing employment. Generally, crops and orchards get precedence on livestock; therefore the status and potential of livestock sector including its characteristics and dimensions are not studied and documented constraining development planning and projects.

Austrade: Pakistan Trade Scoping Study 

Drawing on the recent experience and success of the Agricultural Sector Linkages Program (ASLP), Austrade in close cooperation with AusAID and ACIAR was invited to assist in the on-going commercialisation of agriculture in Pakistan by building and expanding on the commercial observations and recommendations of the May 2006 Dairy Mission to Pakistan carried out under the auspices of ASLP (Annex 1).

Gender contributions in livestock management ( a case study of rural Punjab, Pakistan )

the result of the study showed that majority of the activities related to livestock managemant was well performed by wives in performing activites related to livestock management.

Agriculture and Nutrition in Pakistan – Pathways and Disconnects 

This paper summarises existing evidence on nutrition and agriculture in Pakistan with the view of highlighting the main pathways and disconnects between agriculture growth and nutritional improvement.1 The first two sections (Sections 1 and 2) describe the nutrition and agriculture situations and trends respectively. Section 3 provides a summary of nutrition-related policies and programmes, and Section 4 does the same for agriculture-related policies and programmes.

Self-Perceived need of rural women for Agricultural Extension Services 

Age of the respondents was highly correlated with preferred activities of sowing (r =0.90) and harvesting (r =0.89) of crops, fruits, and vegetables in the area of crop production. Demographic variables of education and age have significant but low correlations with all the preferred activities in livestock production sector. It is suggested that Government should establish women training centers in rural areas and start a training programmes. In the privincial setup of Agriculture Extension Departmnet, a women extension worker should be appointed to train and guide rural women about crop production and crop protection technologies.

An Analysis of Public and Private Agricultural Extension Services in Balochistan, Pakistan 

A majority of the farmers received farm visits and field demonstrations by private extension field staff, which were ranked 1st and 2nd, respectively, as preferred methods of extension. Most of the farmers agreed that public extension field staff provide information regarding application of irrigation and private extension field staff provided advice for the use of plant protection measures. Significant differences were observed between public and private extension field staff on various statements regarding competency level and agronomic practices.

Enhancing Livestock Sector Export Competitiveness 

The socio-economic significance of livestock sector in Pakistan cannot be ignored. On the domestic front, livestock sector is significantly interlinked with dairy sector. Meat and other livestock products are essentially considered to be by-products of dairy operations in Pakistan. Therefore, it is imperative to understand that uplift of the livestock sector is largely dependent on the pace of development undertaken in the dairy sector.

 Barani Livestock Development Through Women Empowerment Project 

Barani Livestock Development through Women Empowerment Project has been evaluated by the Evaluation Team of Directorate General Monitoring & Evaluation, P&D Department. The problem of poverty is prevalent both in rural and urban areas. Poverty is the result of economic, political and social processes that interact with each other and frequently reinforce in ways that exacerbate the deprivation in which poor people live.

Extent of Rural Women’s Participation in Agricultural Activities

Rural women in Pakistan, under a small holding system of farming, play a pivotal role in farming. They actively participate in a range of activities related to crop production and livestock management. Rural women remain busy from dawn to dusk in various agricultural activities, including pre-harvest, post-harvest and livestock management. 

 Improved Market Access and Smallholder Dairy Farmer Participation for Sustainable Dairy Development

The smallholder dairy producers are faced with daunting challenges in the areas of infrastructure, financial insecurity, quality assurance, price regulation, untrained manpower, and seasonality. A fragmented farm base coupled with low productivity makes collection practices inefficient. Access to proper infrastructure such as cold chains is limited and leads to post harvest losses of up to 20% in some areas. And, disparity between input and output prices has inverse affects on farm profitability. These challenges pose a serious threat to the development of the dairy industry in Pakistan.

Participation of Women in Dairy Farm Practices under Small Holder Production System in Pakistan

The objective of the study was to investigate the participation of women in dairy farm practices in the small-holder production system in Pakistan. A questionnaire was designed to collect the data from female farmers (n = 200) of districts Bhakkar and Jhelum in the Punjab province.The present study suggested that, in order to maximize the small-holder dairy farm productivity, a strong extension program should be implemented to enhance the skills and knowledge of women.

Food Insecurity in Pakistan 2009

The Food Insecurity in Pakistan 2009 report is a follow up of the Food Security Analysis of Rural Pakistan 2003 (FSA 2003) that the Sustainable Development Policy Institute (SDPI) produced in collaboration with the World Food Programme (WFP). The FSA 2003 report, the first of its kind in Pakistan, compared 120 districts of Pakistan on the basis of their food insecurity. The report concluded that 37.6 percent of rural population was food insecure.

Pakistan: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper

This paper was prepared based on the information available at the time it was completed on February 19, 2009. The views expressed in this document are those of the staff team and do not necessarily reflect the views of the government of Pakistan or the Executive Board of the IMF. The policy of publication of staff reports and other documents by the IMF allows for the deletion of market-sensitive information.

Disaster Risk Reduction in Pakistan: The Contribution of DEC Member Agencies, 2010-2012

the combined total of individuals affected by the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, the 2005 Pakistan earthquake and the 2010 Haiti earthquake. The floods submerged 17 million acres (69,000 km2) of Pakistan''s most fertile crop land, killed 200,000 heads of livestock and washed away massive amounts of grain. At the worst point, approximately 20% of Pakistan''s total area was underwater. The country suffered extensive damage to crops and physical infrastructure. The total economic impact of the floods is estimated to be around $10 billion.

Role of Participatory Rural Appraisal in Community Development

(A Case Study of Barani Area Development Project in Agriculture, Live Stock and Forestry Development in Kohat)
The study was conducted to find out the role of participatory approach in community development. Barani Area Development Project is one of Govt: sponsored project, which was started in 2001. The aim of this project was to encourage community and ensure maximum participation to sustain the project in district kohat. Kalabat, Jangle Khail , Lachi ,Usterzo and Kachi were selected for this study. Proportion allocation method of sampling was used for the selection of respondents, 150 community members were selected out of 9000 population and 50 stockholders of Barani Project were selected out of 70 population for this study.

The White Revolution- Dhoodh Darya June 2006 :White Paper on Pakistan’s Dairy Sector

The White Revolution is at hand! Traditionally symbolized as the Doodh Darya meaning the river of milk , this is a vision to re-engineer Pakistan’s dairy sector, transforming it to become one of the world’s most competitive dairy sectors (local market) with a possibility of being an exporter in the long run. It envisions the dairy sector to serve as an “engine of economic growth” for the country and to take the responsibility to “drive the development the socio-economic landscape of rural Pakistan.

Brand Extension in Pakistan: Insights from Brand Manager Perspective

There have been few studies on brand extensions in a Pakistan context. In this thesis, we study brand extensions in Pakistan from viewpoint of Brand Managers as their analysis coupled with their personal preferences can provide interesting insights for forming a successful brand extension strategy. Since T. Gamble first published an article about brand extensions (1967) there has been a growing interest for the topic. With the passage of time the inbuilt benefits of brand extensions in terms of cost and higher success rates were captured by companies in developing countries like Pakistan.

 CMER Working Paper No. 05-34 The State of Pakistan’s Dairy Sector: An Assessment

No serious attempt has been made in the past to clarify the micro-level potential of this sector in creating an impact on rural economy. This paper is a pioneering attempt to provide an objective assessment of the state of Pakistan’s dairy and to point out areas of further research. The paper analyzes some core issues and highlights the potentials, and recommends measures that could be adopted.

Identification and Analysis of the Problems of Gender Main: Streaming in Agricultural Decision Making and  Extension Work: A Case Study of District chakwal  

Gender mainstreaming of women is more than a political process that would enable women to participate equally with men in all spheres of life and at all levels of decision making so that their different needs could be equally addressed. In Pakistan, it was, therefore, imperative to conduct a study to find out the problems being faced in gander mainstreaming  and their possible solution in the rain fed area of Chakwal district.It is, therefore, suggested that female children should be encouraged to acquire higher education, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) working in the area should promote gender equality and the financial institutions should be emphasized to extend small loans to women folk to bring them in gender main streamline in agricultural decision and extension work.

Contribution of Pakistani Women in Agriculture: Productivity and constraints 

Most of the Less Developed Countries (LDC’s) rely on agriculture as an important component of the economy and a vigorous driver of growth. Pakistan is not an exception in this case as it is also an agro-based economy which largely depends on agriculture for national income and employment generation. The biggest portion of population is actively engaged either directly or indirectly in agriculture sector.

Exploring the Gender Involvement in Agricultural Decision Making: A Case Study of District Chakwal

Agriculture is the main source of earning and employment sector in Pakistan. In rural areas of Pakistan, women make feed, collect fodder, clean animals and their sheds, make dung cakes, collect manure for organic fertilizers, pump milk, process animals products and market them. They also play a crucial role in rural poultry farming where they apply their own methods of rearing and breeding. But overall the agricultural activity rates may vary from one region to another as in the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) and Balochistan, the socio-cultural norms are more binding and less female participation is observed. Women also play an important role in dairy production. They remain invisible partners in development. Farmers are still generally perceived as ''male'' by policy-makers, development planners and agricultural experts and service deliverers. Therefore study in hand was designed to explore the involvement of both genders in agriculture sector.

 Role of Rural Women in Agricultural Development and Their Constraints

This paper highlights the role of rural women in agriculture development and their constraints. A case study in Depalpur, Okara-Pakistan. In the food security the rural women over the world play a major role, agricultural production and in the development and stability of the rural areas but women face a number of constraints in approaching agricultural extension sources especially in developing countries. Rural women along with men play an important role in the agriculture sector like crop production, livestock production as well as cottage industry. But they have incomplete access resources agricultural extension education services and newest technical knowledge and information sources.

NGOs and Gender Development, the Case of AKRSP1 in District Chitral, NWFP, Pakistan

The empowerment of women and improvement of their socio-economic status are essential ingredients of economic, political and social development. To achieve these objectives, the Government and NGOs have launched a number of programs in various parts of the country.The study findings show that the gender related interventions introduced by AKRSP have played a key role in the development of rural women in the area under reference.

Information seeking by Pakistani farmers: A review of published research 

it was nevertheless possible to draw some common conclusions regarding the farmers’ information seeking. The results from these studies overwhelmingly show that Pakistani farmers rely very much on interpersonal relationships with friends, r