Climate change extension

Climate Change Adaptation in Fisheries and Aquaculture: Compilation of initial examples, FAO, 2014

Climate change impacts on aquatic and marine ecosystems and associated livelihoods are growing, and the purpose of this circular is to provide a brief overview of potential impacts and details of ongoing and completed adaptation activities. Descriptions for 26 current or recent activities and programmes focused specifically on or benefiting fisheries and/or aquaculture (and other sectors if relevant), primarily in developing countries, highlight the diversity of potential adaptation actions at the local to regional scales. This circular is intended to provide a starting point for planners, policy-makers and practitioners who are involved in sectors related to fisheries and aquaculture around the globe.

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Adaptation under the “New Normal” of Climate Change: The Future of Agricultural Extension and Advisory Services 

Brent M. Simpson (Michigan State University) & C. Gaye Burpee (Catholic Relief Services) January 2014
This paper outlines the nature of the adaptation challenge, identifies past and present points of EAS engagement, and proposes future responses. Extension and advisory service (EAS) providers have an immensely important role to play in serving as a critical link between farmers and sources of new information and tools, and in aiding behavior change toward adapted practices among farming populations.

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Multilevel stakeholder influence mapping in climate change adaptation regimes Working Paper 46, Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) Programme, 2013

The extent to which any policy, planning, or funding frameworks aimed at supporting climate change adaptation contribute to improved adaptive capacity of smallholder farmers is strongly affected by the power/influence dynamics between actors within those regimes. This paper introduces the Multilevel Stakeholder Influence Mapping (MSIM) tool, which aims to assist analysts in the study of power dynamics across levels within climate adaptation regimes.

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State of Agricultural Climate Change Adaptation Policy in Nepal 

Chase Sova and Abrar Chaudhury 2013, Working Paper 44, Climate Change Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS)

This document presents an objective look at 16 adaptation initiatives, related to climate change, agriculture and governance institutions in Nepal. The paper highlights the enabling environment for addressing climate change in Nepal and raises concerns on the capacity of local government institutions to support local adaptation plans.This document presents an objective look at 16 adaptation initiatives, related to climate change, agriculture and governance institutions in Nepal. The paper highlights the enabling environment for addressing climate change in Nepal and raises concerns on the capacity of local government institutions to support local adaptation plans.

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Adaptation Learning Highways: Working with Communities to Adapt to Climate Change, ICIMOD, Nepal, 2013

While governments discuss how to respond to climate change, rural communities are compelled to act immediately to secure their livelihoods. At present, few structured processes exist for communities to talk to scientists and policy makers about climate change adaptation. Adaptation Learning Highways is a strategic process that fosters information and knowledge exchange between communities, scientist, and policy makers to inform the decision-making process and make it more inclusive.

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Where the Rain Falls : Climate change, food and livelihood security and migration

United Nations University Institute for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS),November, 2012

The central focus of this study was to explore the circumstances under which households in eight case study sites in Latin America, Africa, and Asia use migration as a risk management strategy when faced with rainfall variability and food and livelihood insecurity. In conducting the field research, three complementary methodologies were applied : Participatory Research Approaches (PRA), a household (HH) survey in the research communities, and interviews with various experts in the respective countries.

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Making the Most of resilience, Institute of Development Studies, February 2013

Resilience is not just about the ability to maintain or return to a previous state; it is about adapting and learning to live with changes and uncertainty. There are three types of capacity that are important in helping people do this: 
(i) absorptive capacity; 
(ii) adaptive capacity and 
(iii) transformative capacity,

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Role of Policy & Institutions in Local Adaptation to Climate Change

Case studies on responses to too much and too little water in the Hindu Kush Himalayas, ICIMOD (2012)

Much of the current research and planning assumes that adaptation will occur largely through government led or -directed technical interventions. However, the findings of the field research demonstrate the extent to which local households and communities are adapting, and will continue to adapt, through actions that are independent of structured programmes and policy. These actions are sometimes referred to as ‘autonomous’, as opposed to planned, responses to climate change. The policy component of ICIMOD’s research is addressing how national policies and strategies can most effectively strengthen and build upon autonomous responses in order to increase local resilience to the water-related impacts of climate change.

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Climate Change : From Concepts to Action: A Guide for Development Practitioners Jacqueline Ashby and Douglas Pachico (2012)

This publication from Catholic Relief Services (CRS) reviews the evidence of climate change, introduces three strategies for dealing with climate change and provides concrete ways to help the rural poor adapt. This guide provides a structure and practical approach to developing better projects that include a climate change perspective—from analyzing the situation to proactively engaging with communities.

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Assessment of capabilities, needs of communities, opportunities and limitations of weather forecasting for coastal regions of Bangladesh

Islam, A.S., Attwood, S., Braun, M., Kamp, K., Aggarwal, P. WorldFish, Penang, Malaysia. Project Report 2013-35.

This report is intended to provide a range of background material in relation to Bangladesh and weather event forecasting, forecast information dissemination, and the implications of weather events and forecasting for communities and their livelihoods. It identifies where institutional efforts and funds have been, and are presently being focused, and ultimately makes some recommendations about CCAFS and WorldFish potential involvement/investment in these areas.

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Agriculture and Adaptation in Bangladesh: Current and Projected Impacts of Climate Change

A recent IFPRI discussion paper discusses the impact of climate change in agriculture in Bangladesh by looking at crop yields, sowing pattern, fertilizers and irrigation usage with changing rainfall pattern.

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"Tackling Climate Change through Livestock: A Global Assessment of Emissions and Mitigation Opportunities" by FAO

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AdaptCap - Piloting Peoples'' Climate Adaptation

This introduces the AdaptCap project that is aiming to address communities adaptation to climatic vagaries through community led and science supported ways.

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Policy & Institutions in Adaptation to Climate Change: Case study on tree crop diversity in China, Nepal, and Pakistan, ICIMOD, Nepal (2013)

The diversification of agriculture has been shown to provide a range of benefits in terms of household adaptive capacity. The integration of trees on cultivated land is a particularly promising form of agricultural diversification. This publication presents the results of a case study carried out in China, Nepal, and Pakistan which reviews the use of trees for agricultural diversification by communities in response to climate-related stresses as part of a larger project documenting local adaptation strategies to climate-induced water stress and hazards in the HKH region. 

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Is agricultural system adapting to climate change in South Asia?

The purpose to undertake four-step analysis was: what changes are taking place in the agricultural practices? What are the connections between such changes and climatic drivers? Can some of these changes be called innovations? Are these innovations climate adaptive?

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Reframing climate adaptive agricultural innovation

Indian agriculture is extremely sensitive to climate change and its impact is increasing over time1. The Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGPs) in India, which is considered as its bread basket providing food security and employment to several hundred millions of people, is extremely vulnerable to climate risks2,3. Adaptation to the adverse effects of climate change is therefore vital for securing agricultural growth and poverty reduction for this region.

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Integrating urban agriculture and forestry into climate change action  plans: Lessons from Sri Lanka

Rapid urban growth in Sri Lanka has posed a number of problems. Food and construction are two major sources of green house gas emissions, including those generated through transports. Large areas of agricultural land has been converted for residential and commercial land uses, significantly altering natural water flows and drainage. This coupled with an increase in average rainfall as well as heavy rainfall events, has resulted in recurrent flooding and related damages to infrastructure, utility supply and the urban economy. This brief illustrates how the Western Province is promoting urban and peri-urban agriculture and forestry as a strategy to reduce vulnerability to climate change, while at the same time enhancing urban liveability and livelihoods

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Gender and Inclusion Toolbox: Participatory Research in Climate Change and Agriculture

The CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS), 2014

This manual introduces a wide range of participatory strategies and tools for research to guide the implementation of climate smart agriculture and efforts to achieve food security in rural communities. It is intended for NGO practitioners and program designers interested in diagnostic and action research for gender sensitive and socially inclusive climate change programs.

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Smart Practices and Technologies for Climate Resilient Agriculture.CRIDA, Hyderabad, 2014

This publication documents the climate resilient practices and technologies that are successful in farmers` fields with potential for up-scaling under the National Mission on Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA) and other such programmes. Some of the adaptation technologies have potential co-benefits to contribute towards reduction in emissions.

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Guidelines for Integrating Climate Change Adaptation into Fisheries and Aquaculture Projects, IFAD, 2014

These Guidelines are the result of an extensive process of consultation and a concerted effort that brought together different fisheries and climate change experts in different moments in time. Substantive inputs were provided by a range of stakeholders, including smallholder farmers, aquaculturists, academics, personnel from ministries of agriculture and environment, and development cooperation partners.

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Stepping up to the Challenge-Six Issues facing global climate change and food security CCAFS, 2014

Key Issues 

1 Scale up proven action and practice;

2 Ensure equitable outcomes for women; 

3 Give decision-making power to farmers; 

4 Enhance nutrition security, not just food security;

5 Make mitigation an opportunity for, rather than a threat to food security;

6 Support markets and value chains for low-income producers and consumers.

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How Innovation Helps Farmers Build Resilience to Climate Change

f@rmletter, December 2014

E-Magazine from the World Farmers Organisation (WFO)

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Coping with Climate Change: The Roles of Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. FAO (2015) 

This publication aims to raise awareness of the important roles of genetic resources for food and agriculture in coping with climate change and to contribute to the mainstreaming of genetic resources for food and agriculture into climate change adaptation and mitigation planning at national and international levels.

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